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小符号也有大学问:英语标点使用指南(转载)  

2012-06-04 07:49:03|  分类: 知识天空 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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以下原文转载自沪江英语:英语学习门户

小符号也有大学问:英语标点使用指南(转载) - 大卫 - 峰回路转

It's important to know the rules of English [w]punctuation[/w] when you write, as using the wrong punctuation may lead to misunderstandings. Using the correct punctuation is especially important when you are writing to impress, such as when you are applying for a new job.当你书写时,如何正确使用英语的标点符号可是至关重要的!因为标点的误用可能会导致其他人的误解哦,尤其是当你要找工作投简历时,正确的标点使用会助你一臂之力~~

Here is a guide to the rules for using the more common punctuation marks in English.接下来我们就来看看怎么正确规范地使用标点符号。

When to use capital letters
 什么时候要大写?

1. At the beginning of the sentence 在句子的开头
It's cold today.

2. For the personal pronoun "I" 第一人称“I”
I live in a big city.

3. For "proper nouns" 专有名词
- names and titles: Sarah, Mr Stevens, Doctor Roberts
- places and countries: London, England,
- nationalities and languages: He is French, She speaks Italian
- companies, products and brands: Microsoft, Coca Cola
- institutions: The Ashmolean Museum, The Department of Trade
- religions and religious festivals: Christianity, Ramadan
- [w]abbreviated[/w] names: The BBC

4. For books, television and radio programmes, newspapers and magazines 书名、广播电视节目、报纸和杂志名称
The Simpsons, The Times.

5. Days of the week and months of the year 星期和月份
Wednesday, August 10th.

6. Historical periods or events 历史时期或事件
The Russian Revolution

7. Rivers, mountains and lakes and [w]geographical[/w] regions 河流山川和其他地理区域
The Amazon, The Middle East

8. In addresses 地址
Flat 2, 16 London Road.

When to use commas in English
 什么时候用逗号?

1. To separate items in a list 在列表中区分单独的项
We need coffee, tea, sugar and milk.
美式:"We need coffee, tea, sugar, and milk."

*British English writers do not normally put a comma before "and", although in American
English, a comma can be used.
注意:英式英语通常不会在"and”之前使用逗号,不过在美式英语中是可以的噢。

2. To separate clauses which are related in meaning区分意义上的从句
Do you know the answer, or should I ask Tony?

*Where the clauses are short, commas are not used:
注意:如果从句太短,就不必使用逗号了。

"I was tired so I went home."

3. After [w]introductory[/w] phrases 在介绍性短语后
Unfortunately, I cannot send you the information.

4. Before and after a word or phrase that interrupts the main clause 在主句中的插入语前后
Some children,if they are gifted, attend special schools.

5. Before and after non-defining clauses 在非限制性定语从句前后
The factory workers, who were in a meeting, decided to accept the pay offer.
= All the factory workers were in a meeting.

*Compare with a defining clause (which restricts the noun).
注意:限制性定语从句不使用逗号。

6. To show millions, thousands and hundreds 数字中
5, 890, 2811
10, 050

When to use a full stop (or "period" in American English)
 什么时候用句号?

1. At the end of the sentence 句末
Thank you for your letter.

2. As a [w]decimal[/w] point 作为小数点使用
2.5%, $9.99.

When to use a colon
 什么时候用冒号?

1. To introduce a list 介绍一系列项目
You will need to bring the following: a waterproof jacket, a change of clothes, a battery-operated torch and some matches.

2. To introduce explanations 给出定义
There is one thing to remember: the nights can get cold, so bring a warm jacket.

3. To write the time 时间
The 10:40 train to London is late.

4. Between the title and subtitle of a book 书名的副标题
Shakespeare: The Complete Works

When to use a semi-colon in English
 什么时候使用分号?

Semi-colons show a pause which is longer than a comma, but not as long as a full stop. Short clauses which are related in meaning can be separated by a comma. However, if the clauses are longer, you will probably need a semi-colon:分号表达的是一个比逗号长句号短的停顿。有一些短句可以由逗号来断句,但是如果句子比较长的话,使用分号会比较合适。

We'll need to hold some meetings abroad with our suppliers; please could you check your availability in April.

1. To separate long items in a list在列表中区分较长的项目
Our writing course includes several components: [w]correspondence[/w], including
letters and emails; style and vocabulary choice; punctuation; layout and planning.

2. To give balance to sentences, or to link parallel sentences 使句子更平衡,或者连接并列句
We went out for the day; they stayed in.

When to use an apostrophe in English
 什么时候使用单引号?

1. With an s to show possession 与s连用表示所属关系
The company's profits.

2. To show abbreviation 表示缩写
I don't like smoking. (= do not)

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